Gestational Diabetes in Ohio, 2009-2016

The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) periodically publishes state data that describe trends in Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk factors, prevalence, co-morbidities, and healthcare experiences during preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum. The current data represents 2009-2016 and updates previous data books published in 2011 and 2016 that describe the years 2006-2009 and 2009-2014. Data sources include vital statistics (VS) birth records, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Ohio Medicaid claims, and Ohio Hospital Association’s (OHA) hospital discharge data.

We found that approximately 7.3% of Ohio births in 2015-2016 were complicated by GDM, representing a steady increase from 4.9% in 2006-2009. Over this same time period, the proportion of women who were obese prior to pregnancy has steadily increased while the proportion who report smoking has decreased and the proportion who breastfed their infant has increased.

GDM presents a significant challenge to the health of both mother and infant. GDM is characterized by glucose intolerance appearing or first diagnosed during pregnancy, and greater than half of women with GDM will subsequently be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Data Book Quick Links

Executive Summary

Preconception: Risk Factors for GDM
In addition to demographic information, explore risk factors and behaviors present in women at risk for GDM. Did you know that more than 75% of women age 18 - 44 diagnosed with GDM reported exercising in the past 30 days? One in three Ohio women who had a baby in 2016 were obese before becoming pregnant, up from one in five in 2006-2008.

GDM Screening and Diagnosis
Learn more about the NIH, ACOG and ADA endorsed screening protocols for diagnosing GDM.

Incidence of GDM in Ohio
GDM rates continue to increase for every race/ethnicity and age group, with the highest prevalence occurring in women over the age of 45.

Maternal and Infant Complications
Did you know that infants born to women with GDM were more frequently born preterm, admitted to the NICU, and delivered by C-Section?

Postpartum and Ongoing Care
Half of all women diagnosed with GDM will go on to develop Type 2 Diabetes within 5 years.

Postpartum Behaviors
In 2016, three-quarters of women with a history of GDM self-reported ever breastfeeding, with 99.2% of those mothers still breastfeeding at two weeks postpartum. To learn more, see tables 10-13.

Prevalence of GDM History among Women of Reproductive Age
Learn more about GDM history among women age 18 - 44 years by education level, geographic region, insurance type, and more.

(COMING SOON) The Cost of Gestational Diabetes

Additional Resources